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Introducing the WAIS–IV

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Overview • • • •

Introduction Revision Goals Test Structure Normative / Validity / Clinical Information

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Wechsler’s View of Intelligence "The global capacity of a person to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his/her environment.“

Wechsler, David (1939). The measurement of adult intelligence. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, p. 229.

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WAIS: A Historical Perspective Wechsler-Bellevue

1939

Wechsler-Bellevue II

1946

WAIS

1955

WAIS-R

1981

WAIS-III

1997

WAIS-IV

2008

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Revision Goals

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Update Theoretical Foundations – Eliminate Dual IQ/Index Score Structure • Consistent with WISC-IV

– Enhance Measure of Fluid Intelligence • Develop additional measure of fluid reasoning: Figure Weights

– Enhance Measure of Working Memory • Revise Arithmetic and Digit Span to emphasize WM

– Enhance Measure of Processing Speed • Develop additional PS subtest: Cancellation

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Enhance Clinical Utility • Co-normed with the Wechsler Memory Scale-IV • Additional Special Group Studies (e.g., Mild Cognitive Impairment, Borderline Intellectual Functioning) • Develop an Upgrade Kit in 2009 for Specialists (e.g., Geropsychologists & Neuropsychologists)

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Improve Psychometric Properties • Update Norms • Expand FSIQ Range • Improve Floors and Ceilings • Maintain or improve subtest and composite reliability • Provide initial evidence of validity

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Enhance User-Friendliness

• • • • •

Reduce Testing Time Revise Instructions Redesign Record Form Increase Portability Separate WAIS-IV and WMS-IV Technical Manuals

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Increase Developmental Appropriateness • Add demonstration and sample items • Reduce vocabulary level of instructions • Drop Object Assembly • Reduce emphasis on motor demands • Reduce emphasis on time-bonus • Enlarge visual stimuli • Eliminate auditory concerns on DS and LN

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Test Structure

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Test Structure Perceptual Reasoning Scale

Core Subtests Similarities Vocabulary Information

Core Subtests Block Design Matrix Reasoning Visual Puzzles New!

Supplemental Subtests Comprehension

Supplemental Subtests Picture Completion Figure Weights (16-69) only New!

FSIQ Working Memory Scale

Processing Speed Scale

Core Subtests Digit Span Arithmetic

Core Subtests Symbol Search Coding

Supplemental Subtests Letter-Number Sequencing (16-69 only)

Supplemental Subtests Cancellation (16-69 only) New!

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Ages 16:0 – 90:11

Verbal Comprehension Scale

Subtest Modifications • 4 Subtests Dropped – Object Assembly, Picture Arrangement, Coding Recall (Digit Symbol-Incidental Learning), and Coding Copy (Digit Symbol-Copy) • 12 Subtests Retained with Modifications – Similarities, Vocabulary, Information, Comprehension – Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, Picture Completion – Digit Span, Arithmetic, Letter-Number Sequencing – Symbol Search, Coding • 3 New Subtests – Visual Puzzles, Figure Weights, Cancellation Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Changes to Verbal Subtests • Similarities – Replaced items, Revised scoring responses • Vocabulary – Replaced items, Revised scoring responses, Added picture items • Information – Replaced items, Revised scoring responses • Comprehension – Replaced items, Revised scoring responses

rules, Added sample rules, Added sample rules, Added sample rules, Added sample

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Changes to Performance Subtests • Block Design – Used Model and Stimulus Book for all teaching items, Added 4-block diamond items before 9-block items, Reduced # of items with time bonus, Added BDN process score • Matrix Reasoning – Retained 2 of 4 item-types, Added sample item for each type, Clarified 30-second guideline • Picture Completion – Enlarged visual stimuli and Added ceiling items

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Changes to Working Memory Subtests • Digit Span – Added new sequencing task, Eliminated rhyming numbers • Arithmetic – Omitted reference to English measurement system and currency, Decreased emphasis on mathematical skills to increase emphasis on working memory • Letter-Number Sequencing – Eliminated rhyming numbers and letters, Omitted use of L, I, O, and zero, Implemented graduated teaching strategy

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Changes to Processing Speed Subtests • Symbol Search – Enlarged symbols, Revised format and instructions • Coding – Enlarged symbols and writing space, Redesigned for more equivalent item difficulty across task, Revised instructions for consistency with WISC-IV

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Reduced Discontinue Rules Subtest

WAIS-III

WAIS-IV

BD

3

2

SI, MR, AR, CO

4

3

VC, IN

6

3

PCm

5

4

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

New Subtests: Visual Puzzles “Which 3 of these pieces go together to make this puzzle?”

1

2

3

4

5

6

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New Subtests: Figure Weights “Which one of these goes here to balance the scale?”

1

2

3

4

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

5

New Subtests: Cancellation “When I say go, draw a line through each red square and yellow triangle.”

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Composite Scores • FSIQ • Based on 10 core subtests

• Index Scores: Primary interpretation level • VCI & PRI: 3 core subtests each • WMI & PSI: 2 core subtests each

• GAI = VCI + PRI • Optional Index score

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Process Scores • Block Design – Block Design No Time Bonus (BDN)

• Digit Span – Digit Span Forward (DSF), Digit Span Backward (DSB), Digit Span Sequencing (DSS) – Longest Digit Span Forward (LDSF), Longest Digit Span Backward (LDSB), Longest Digit Span Sequence (LDSS)

• Letter-Number Sequencing – Longest Letter-Number Sequence (LLNS)

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Normative Sample Information Validity Study Information Clinical Study Information

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WAIS-IV Normative Sample • Ages 16-90 • Normative sample: N = 2200 – 200 examinees per age band for ages 16-69 – 100 examinees per age band for ages 70-90

• National sample stratified by: – – – –

Sex Education Level Ethnicity Region

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WAIS-IV Validity Studies • • • • • •

WMS-IV Co-norming Study (2009 pub) WMS-III Correlational Study (16:0-89:11) WAIS-III Equating Study (16:0-89:11) WISC-IV Equating Study (16:0-16:11) WIAT-II Linking Study (16:0-19:11) CMS Correlational Study (16:0-16:11)

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

WAIS-IV Clinical Studies • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Intellectual Disability: Mild Severity Intellectual Disability: Moderate Severity Borderline Intellectual Functioning Gifted Intellectual Functioning Autistic Disorder Asperger’s Disorder Learning Disability: Reading Learning Disability: Math ADHD TBI Mild Cognitive Impairment Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type Depression

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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